GENERAL STUDIES (INDIAN POLITY & CURRENT)
Time: 2:00 hours Maximum Marks: 100
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1.In 1991 the first ever motion to remove a Supreme Court Justice was signed by 108 members of parliament. Justice Ramaswamy, during his tenure as the Chief Justice of which Court was accused of misappropriating funds.
(a) Delhi High Court
(b) Punjab High Court
(c) Madras High Court
(d) Allahabad High Court
2. The removal of Judge of High Court is______?
(a) Legal Process
(b) Quasi Judicial Process
(c) Constitutional Process
(d) Executive Business
3. For which Provision of the Constitution Dr. Ambedkar considered ‘Heart & Soul’ of the Constitution’?
(a) Article 21
(b) Article 14
(c) Article 32
(d) Article 19
4. Who said the following statement--------“ I feel that many of these fundamental rights have been framed from the point of view of a police constable”?
(a) Somnath Lahiri
(b) Sardar Hukum Singh
(c) Ballabh Bhai Patel
(d) Ram Manohar Lohia
5. Which of the following are the features of semi presidential system?
(a) It has the President as head of the state.
(b) It has a Prime Minister as head of the government.
(c) PM & his council are responsible to legislature
(d) All of above
6. The Vice President of India may be removed from his office by resolution of Rajya Sabha & agreed to by Lok Sabha. What majority is required to pass the resolution in the Rajya Sabha?
(a) Absolute majority of the House.
(b) Majority of all the then members of the House.
(c) Special majority of the House.
(d) Simple majority of the House.
7. The Provision of the Justice has been taken from which constitution of the world?
8. Which of the following is not a fundamental right?
(a) Right to Privacy
(b) Right to form Co-Operatives
(c) Right to settle in any part of India
(d) Right to strike
9. Which of the following facts about preventive detention is correct?
(a) Preventive Detention can be extended for any Period of time.
(b) It prevents the state to arrest a person until the person commits a crime.
(c) If a government feels that a person can be a threat to law & order. It can arrest that person.
(d) None of the above
10. Which of the following facts about right to property is incorrect?
(a) After the 44th Amendment it is no more fundamental right.
(b) Under Article 300 A it is a legal right
(c) In 1973 SC gave a decision that right to property
is not a basic feature of Constitution
11. Which of the following facts about Proportional Representation system is incorrect-------?
(a) More than one representative may be elected from one constituency.
(b) Voters vote for a candidate
(c) Candidate who wins the election gets majority of the votes
(d) Every party gets seats in the legislature in proportion to the % of votes it gets.
12. Who said the following statement “Separate electorates have been a curse to India, have done incalculable harm to this country ----Separate electorates have blurred our progress - - We (Muslims) want to merge in the nation - - For God’s sake , keep your hands off reservations for the Muslim community - --“
(a) Nurul Haq
(b) Tajamul Hussain
(c) Abdul Kalam Azad
(d) Badruddin Taiyab Ji
13. By which amendment the council of ministersl number of members cannot exceed 15% of the Houses of people was decided--- ?
(a) 87th Amendment
(b) 97th Amendment
(c) 91st Amendment
(d) 92 Amendment
14. Which Article provides special procedure in respect of money bill ?
(a) Article 109
(b) Article 110
(c) Article 108
(d) Article 112
15. The Jurisdiction of SC of India consists of following---
(a) Original Jurisdiction only
(b) Appellate Jurisdiction only
(c) Advisory & Special Power only
16. Which Article reads ’All authorities, civil and judicial, In the territory of India shall Act in aid of the SC ?
(a) Article 143
(b) Article 144
(c) Article 145
(d) Article 142
17.Under which Article SC shall have power to review any judgment pronounced or order made by it ?
(a) Article 137
(b) Article 136
(c) Article 134
(d) Article 135
18. Who said the quoted statement about the Judicial Independence “The doctrine of Independence is not to be raised to the level of dogma so as to enable the Judiciary to function as a kind of super-Legislature or super-Executive. The Judiciary is there to interpret the Constitution or adjudicate upon right”----
(a) Dr. B R Ambedkar
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(c) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(d) Aladi Krishnaswami Ayyar
19. Which Article reads, ‘The States and the Territories there of shall be as specified in the First Schedule’ ?
(a) Article 1(2)
(b) Article 1(3)
(c) Article 3(1)
(d) Article 3(2)
20. Which one of the following subjects is not given in the Union List ?
(a) Airways (b) Ports
(c) Agriculture (d) War & peace
21. Which are the following subjects are given in the Concurrent List ------?
(a) Adulteration (b) Forest
(c) Education (d) All
22. Which are the following list of the 7th schedule has the subject polygamy ?
(a) Union List
(b) States List
(c) Concurrent List
(d) None of the above list
23. The term federation in the constitution has been burrowed from which constitution of the world ?
(d) From no-where
24. “The Executive power of every State shall be so exercised as not to impede or prejudice the exercise of the executive power of the Union” ? This is given in the -----
(a) Article 257
(b) Article 249
(c) Article 248
(d) Article 356
25. The 73rd and 74th Amendment were passed by the Parliament in 1992, In which year they came in to force?
A- 1993 B- 1994
C- 1995 D- 1996`
26. Who can suspend UPPSC members ?
C- State Government
D- Union Parliament
27. Under which article, Parliament is empowered to make laws in connection to the elections to either House of Parliament or State Legislature ?
A- Article 325 B- Article 327
C- Article 324 D- Article 326
28. Article 243 Q deals with which of the following provision ?
A- Constitution of Municipality
B- Composition of Municipality
C- Definitions related to Municipality
29. The Co-Operative Societies are given in which part of the constitution ?
(a) Part IX B
(b) Part IX A
(c) Part IX
(d) Part X
30. Which Article reads appointment of a commission to investigate the condition of backward classes ?
(a) Article 339
(b) Article 340
(c) Article 341
(d) Article 342
31. The Official Language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devnagari Script is written which Article of the Constitution ?
(a) Article 345
(b) Article 343
(c) Article 252
(d) Article 348
32. By which Amendment of the Constitution the following change was substituted for certain words in Article 368, “It shall be presented to the presiden who shall give his assent to the Bill ?
(a) Amendment 16
(b) Amendment 24
(c) Amendment 28
(d) Amendment 22
33. The Residuary Powers are given to the Central Government, which Article Empowers Parliament to Legislate on the same ?
(a) Article 352
(b) Article 248
(c) Article 249
(d) Article 256
34. Which Article empowered the Parliament to Legislate with respect to any matter in the State list, if a proclamation of emergency is in operation ?
(a) Article 249 (b) Article 250
(c) Article 251 (d) Article 252
35. Which Article says that “A Person who has voluntariley required the citizenship of any Foreign State shall no more be a Citizen of India “?
(a) Article 9 (b) Article 10
(c) Article 11 (d) None
36. Which Article gives the definition of the State ?
(a) Article 352 (b) Article 12
(c) Article 13 (d) Article 14
37. Article 21A was added by which Amendment of the Constitution ?
(a) 86 Amendment of the constitution
(b) 92 Amendment of the constitution
(c) 93 Amendment of the constitution
(d) 94 Amendment of the constitution
38. Which among the following rights are fundamental Rights under Article 21 ?
(a) Right to privacy
(b) Right to Strike
(c) Both (a) & (b)
(d) Neither (a) nor (b)
39. Protection against double Jeopardy is guaranteed in which Article of the Constitution ?
(a) Article 21 (b) Article 20(1)
(c) Article 20(2) (d) None
40. Which clause of the Article 18 says, ‘No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State’?
(a) 18(1) (b) 18(2)
(c) 18(3) (d) 18(4)
41. The Protection of Civil Right Act 1955 was earlier Known as ;
(a) The Untouchability (Offences) Act 1955
(b) The Untouchability (Abolition) Act 1950
(c) The Untouchables (Protection) Act 1955
42. No child below the age of .… shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in anyother hazardous employment.Fill in the blank in the statement.
(a) 18 Years (b) 16 Years
(c) 14 Years (d) 15 Years
43. Which Article of the constitution recognizes Minorities on a religion or language bases ?
(a) Article 29 (b) Article 27
(c) Article 30 (d) Article 28
44. Which of the following statements related to Minorities is correct ?
(a) The Motilal Nehru Report 1928 defined the term Minorities.
(b) The Sapru Report 1945 also gave a very vague definition of Minorities.
(c) The UN Sub-Commission on prevention of Discrimination and protection of minorities has defined word ‘Minorities’?
(d) The word Minority is defined in the constitution as a Non-Dominant group.
45. Which Article says that there should be equal pay for equal work for both men and women ?
(a) Article 39(b)
(b) Article 39(c)
(c) Article 39(d)
(d) Article 39(e)
46. The equal Justice and free Legal aid given in Art. 39 A was inserted by which Amendment of the Constitution ?
(a) Article 42nd
(b) Article 43rd
(c) Article 44th
47. Which article of the DPSP talks about organization of village panchayats ?
(a) Article 40
(b) Article 39
(c) Article 41
(d) it is no more in the DPSP ( Part IV ) after 73rd Amendment of the constitution.
48. By which Amendment of the constitution Article 43B was added in to DPSP ?
(a) 42nd Amendment
(b) 44th Amendment
(c) 96th Amendment
(d) 97th Amendment
49. ‘Protection and Improvement of Environment and Safeguarding of forests and wild life’ is given in which Article of DPSP ?
(a) Article 48 (b) Article 48A
(c) Article 49 (d) Article 46
50. Which Article says that the State shall endeavour to maintain just and honourable relation between Nation ?
(a) Article 51A (b) Article 51A(a)
(c) Article 51(b) (d) Article 51(a)
51. Audit of accounts of co-operative societies is given in Articles -------
(a) 243 ZL (b) 243 ZM
(c) 243 ZN (d) 243 ZO
52. Election of members of Board of co-operative societies is in-------
(a) 243 ZK (b) 243 ZJ
(c) 243 ZH (d) None
53. Relation between the Union and the States are given in Part ------- of the constitution.?
(a) IX (b) X (c) XI (d) XII
54. Right to property comes under Article 300A. It comes under constitution’s Part -------
(a) XII (b) XIII (c) XI (d) X
55. Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse are given in Article -------
(a) 304 (b) 305 (c) 302 (d) 301
56. The title ‘All-India Service’ is in Article -------
(a) 312 (b) 213 (c) 211 (d) 311
57. In which Article Public Service Commissions for the Union and for State is given ?
(a) 312 (b) 315 (c) 316 (d) 317
58. ‘Function of Public Service Commissions’ is given in Article ----?
(a) 318 (b) 319 (c) 320 (d) 321
59. The Article that makes provision for the Appointment of district judges is ------?
(a) 229 (b) 230 (c) 232 (d) 233
60. The Constitution of High Court is given in Article ------?
(a) 213 (b) 214 (c) 215 (d) 216
61. Power of High Court to issue writ in nature of mandamus ,Prohibition . etc is given in Article -------?
(a) 226 (b) 227 (c) 228 (d) 220
62. Which Art. of the constitution provides for the appointment of Attorney-General by the President of India ?
(a) No Article as it a non-constitutional post.
(b) Art. 76 (c) Art. 77 (d) Art. 78
63. The provision for the appointment of comptroller and Auditor-General of India is given in Article ------
(a) 78 (b) 148 (c) 248 (d) 146
64. Motto of Olympics is in order of -------?
(i) Fortius,Communitier, Altius, Citius
(ii) Communitier, Citius,Altius, Fortius
(iii) Altias, Communitier,Fortius, Citius
(iv) Citus,Altias,Fortius, Communitier
(a) (i) (b) (ii) (c) (iv) (d) (iii)
65. Russian players participate in Olympics 2020 under which name (ACRONYM) ?
(a) RAC (b) RCO (c) ROC (d) RCA
66. Name of the Coaches of Neeraj Chopra are----?
(a) Jaiveer Singh
(b) Uwe Hohn & Gary Calvert
(c) Klaus Bartonietz
(d) All the Above
67. (1) TOPS stands for ------ Target Olympic Podium Scheme.
(2) Its a flagship program of Ministry of Youth Affairs and sports.
(3) It consists of an Elite Athletes Identification Committee.
(4) It was launch in 2014.
(a) 1 & 2 correct (b) 1,2,3 correct
(c) 1,2,4 correct (d) All correct
68. UN’s World Heritage site encrypted Dholavira which is ?
(a) 40th site (b) 39th site (c) 42nd site (d) 50th site
69. Which Amendment of the constitution added phrase, “With Consequential seniority” ?
(a) 84th Amendment (b) 85th Amendment
(c) 89th Amendment (d) 87th Amendment
70. The Constitution Amendment Bill 127 will be AmendMent Act no. ------ ?
(a) 105 Amendment Act of the constitution.
(b) 104 Amendment Act of the constitution.
(c) 106 Amendment Act of the constitution.
(d) 103 Amendment Act of the constitution.
71. Which Article makes provision for the joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament ?
(a) 108 (b) 106 (c) 107 (d) 109
72. Special provision as to Financial Bill is given ------?
(a) Article 114 (b) Article 115
(c) Article 116 (d) Article 117
73. Special provision with respect to Delhi done by Constitution 69th Amendment Act 1991 are given in Article ?
(a) 239A (b) 239AA (c) 239B (d) 291A
74. Constitution of Panchayat is given in Art. ---- ?
(a) 243A (b) 243B (c) 243C (d) 243D
75. Audits of Panchayat is given Article -------?
(a) 243 J (b) 243K (c) 243 I (d) 243 L
76. Choose correct answer ------
(i) Naftali Benett replaced ‘King Bibi’ as the PM of Israel.
(ii) He is first Kippa(Skull cap) wearing PM of Israel.
(iii) His Party is Yamina.
(a) 1,2,3 correct (b) 1 & 3
(c) 2 & 3 (d) None
77. The section in IT Act 2000 struck down by SC is ------?
(a) 66A (b) 69A (c) 68A (d) 166A
78. Which statement are correct-------?
(i) The Odisha Institute of Maritime and South East Asian Studies (OIMSEAS) has discovered a 4000 year old settlement in Balasore district.
(ii) The site has three distnict cultural phases----Chalcolithic, Iron age and Early Historic Period.
(iii) The site is situated b/w Sona & Burahabalang rivers.
(a) 1 &2 (b) 2 & 3
(c) 1 & 3 (d) 1,2,3 correct
79. The Head of NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) is -------
(a) Home Secretary (b) Home Minister
(c) Defence Secretary (d) PM
80. Samrat Chaudhary wrote a book on the river Brahmaputra which explains the condition of Xihu(The Ganges River Dolphin) under the title ------?
(a) Xihu the Vulnerable life
(b) The Braided River
(c) Brahmaputra : The last hope of Xihu.
(d) The Ganga of East : The Home for Xihus.
81. Which of the following is not correct about Gupkar Alliance--------?
(a) It is a five party alliance –NC,PDP,ANC,PC and CPI(M).
(b) Its J & K people’s movement which forged alliance on15th oct 2020.
(c) Gupkar is an Arabic word means freedom.
(d) Gupkar is the name from hill-----Gopadari or Gopa at the feet is situated.
82. The SALMA Dam-Indo-Afgan friendship Dam was inaugurated by PM Modi himself is situated on the river ?
(a) Kabul (b) Herat
(c) Hari (d) Sona
83. The expanded Troika on Afghanistan has countries---?
(d) None the above .
84. Aug’21 Presidency of UNSC is held by India. When will again India preside UNSC ?
(a) Can not be said in advance.
(b) December 22.
(c) When India is again nominated in UNSC membership.
(d) When UNSC passes the resolution for the same.
85. (i) Narendra Modi became the first India PM to chair UNSC Meet on Aug’9.
(ii) India’s permanent representative to the UN is T.S. Tirumurti who also presides UNSC during presidency of India in Aug’21.
(iii) During Presidency India will be organising events on three major areas—maritime security, peacekeeping and counter-terorrism.
(a) stratement 1&2 correct
(b) statement 1& 3 correct
(c) 1,2,3 correct
(d) 2 & 3 correct
86. Name the book written by Romila Thapar, N.Ram, Gautam Bhatiya and Gautam Patel.?
(a) On Citizenship
(b) Citizenry of India; On the Cross Road.
(c) India, that is Bharat.
(d) Independence and beyond
87. Quad on Afghanistan is organisation of following countries:
(a) US, Russia,China,Afghanistan
(c) US, Pakistan , Afghanistan,Tajakistan
88. Match the following----
1.SAGAR (a) Ministry of Defence & MOEA
2.Sagarmala (b) Ministry of ports,shipping & Waterways.
3.Mausam (c) Ministry of Culture.
4. Chaman (d) Ministry of Agriculture
(a) ( 1-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d ) (b) ( 1-a, 2-c, 3-b, 4-a )
(c) ( 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4-c ) (d) (1-a, 2-b, 3-d, 4-c )
89. The Kyoto protocol has identified six gaseous pollutant as ‘Green house gases’ & top three in particular become matter of concern ---- CO2, N2O, CH4 .These three are papularly known as ---?
(a) The Giant Three (b) The Big Three
(c) The Black Three (d) None
90. Arrange the following greenhouse gases in decreasing order of their Global Warming Potential (GWP)?
i. Carbon dioxide ii. Sulphur hexafluoride
iii. Nitrous oxide iv. Methane
(a) i, ii, iii, iv (b) iv, iii,i, ii
(c) ii, iii, iv,i (d) ii, i, iv, iii
91. The Kigali agreement was an amendment to which of the following international conventions aimed at conserving the environment?
(a) Montreal Protocol (b) Stockholm Convention
(c) Bonn Convention (d) Kyoto Protocol
92. Which of the following global biodiversity hot spots are located in India either partly or completely?
i. Eastern Himalayas ii. Indo-Burma Region
iii. Western Ghats iv. Sunderland
(a) i and iii only (b) ii, iii and iv
(c) . i, iii and iv (d) i, ii, iii and iv
93. Which of the following is not a cause for loss of biodiversity?
(a) Destruction of habitat
(b) Invasion by alien species
(c) Keeping animals in zoological parks
(d) Over-exploitation of natural resources
94. Which one of the following is not a major characteristic feature of biodiversity hot spots?
(a) Large number of species
(b) Abundance of endemic species
(c) Large number of exotic species
(d) Destruction of habitat
95. The historic convention on Biological Diversity held in Rio de Janeiro in1992 is known as:
(a) CITES Convention (b) The Earth Summit
(c) G-16 Summit (d) MAB Programme
96. Golden rice is:
(a) A variety of rice grown along the yellow river in China
(b) Long stored rice having yellow colour tint
(c) A transgenic rice having gene for beta- carotene
(d) Wild variety of rice with yellow-coloured grains
97. The first clinical gene therapy was done for the treatment of:
(a) AIDS (b) Cancer
(c) Cystic fibrosis (d) Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency(SCID)
98. The salinity of the sea measured in parts perthousand is:
(a) 10 – 15 (b) 30 – 70
(c) 0 – 5 (d) 30 – 35
99. The Motto of INS Vikrant: Jayema sam yudhi spridhah /.
‘I defeat those who fight against me’
This is taken from:?
(a) Mahabharat (b) Ramayana
(c) Prashna Upanishad (d) Rig veda
100. The Pulitzer prize for 2021 was bagged by Megha Rajagopalan. She works for Buzz Feed News. Who is other Indian origin journalist to win the same award for local reporting category?
(a) Neil Bedi
(b) Ruchi Bhatia
(c) Akash Nhatia
(d) She is alone. No other is Indian origin.
Abolition of Article 370 requires only public notificatioj by the president. No amendmemt of the constitution under Article 368 is required.
For complete answer as well as explanation please watch the video by clicking on the link below.
मानवीय मूल्यों की कमी और इतिहास की अज्ञानता या, इतिहास का गलत ज्ञान आज हमारे देश की सभी समस्याओं के पीछे मूल कारण हैं। चर्चा करें|
For watching the lecture on the above topic visit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-E5p55Euft0&t=3s
"WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST1 SECULAR1 DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC, and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE - social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity1 of the Nation.
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, this twenty-sixty day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSLEVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Philosophy of the Preamble
"Preamble is the key to open the brain of the constitution makers" (Reberu Bari Case). Preamble tries, and tries successfully, to tell in form of formula what is told in detail in the text. Even, it takes to the reader into the brain of the constitution makers. It discloses the intention of the makers of the constitution. It is the thing of daily experience that every intention is not executed into action. There is always a gap, what one conceives and what he actually writes on paper. This can happen in the case of the constitution also. Preamble helps you to read between the lines of the constitution. Whenever there is an ambiguity as per interpretation of any article of the constitution, preamble helps you to get the real and clear meaning of the same. In this way preamble is just not the summary of the constitution, it is something more than that. It broadens the horizon of meanings and scopes of the constitution. Thus, the preamble is not only the part of the constitution (Keshavanand Bharti vs. The State of Kerala, AIR 1973, SC 1416 case) but the very Kernel and the spirit of the book.
Broadly, preamble tells about three things. One, where does the ultimate political sovereignty lies? Second, What is the nature of the constitution? Third, what are the goals and aims of the constitution.
The constitution is the supreme law of the land. The constitution is the source of all laws of the land. But the Preamble tells that constitution is not the business of the scholar only. It’s just not the brain child of craftsmen of laws. It is the expression of will and wish of the people of the land - We, the people of India, the makers of the constitution. Thus, the ultimate political sovereignty lies with the people of the land, and the constitution is the expression of the will of the people.
The preamble also tells about the nature of the government and the position of the state. The declared intention of the preamble is to make India Sovereignty Socialist, Secular, and Democratic Republic.
Sovereignty means, India is no more dependent, no more subject to colonial power. India is free in her internal and external business, devoid of any subjection to any external force. A few people have objected the sovereign status of India because of her being member of Common Wealth of Nations. But the objection is just sentimental without logic. India is a member of Common Wealth of Nations not out of compulsion, not out of obligation, just out of courtesy. India joined the Common Wealth of Nations on her own and can secede as per her will and wish from it.
Prior to the 42nd amendment Act of the Constitution Indian Constitution and Constitution makers had avoided the explicit use of the term socialism for India and for the Constitution. Now preamble claims clearly India a socialist. The intention behind the insertion of 'socialist' is not to back up any particular ideology but to underline the concept of equality and fair play among the people which the term socialism loudly sounds. Though the very insertion seems to be slightly redundant because the very purpose of the fair play and the equality, which socialism guarantees, had already been fulfilled by the preamble by securing justice - Social, Economic and Political.
By the 42nd Amendment Act of the Constitution the term secular was added into it and this too seems to be a bit superfluous because already there was freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship, which the term secular implies. India is secular in her own fashion, in the Gandhian fashion. India is a land of many religions and cultures. Pluralism is the beauty of India. More the fair play, more the peace among the various groups and the communities of India more she is beautiful. More the hatred, more the enmity less beautiful she remains. Indian secularism is not blind copy of Western secularism. The difference lies in the difference of the history of the respective lands. The renaissance of the European nations was declaredly without religion, one can say against the religion, and Indian renaissance is naturally within the religion. In Western world, a secular man is one who is without the religion at the public place, so the western nations are. But in India a secular man is not supposed to be without religion whether he is in the four walls of the house or on the street or at any public place. Rather, every Indian is expected to be religious in every walk of life guaranteeing, consciously or unconsciously, his behaviour is not hurting the conscience of the others. In India secularism is an attribute to be carefully adorned with by every individual. By making India secular, the Constitution makers intended to make every person, any person bear the sense of responsibility to take care of religious health of India. Indian secularism is loaded with more Dos and less Donts. India is secular it does not mean that India is religiously neutral. It’s not a negative adjective which imposes limitations. Its rather a positive attribute which generates the equal warmth towards all religions. Secular means India is not theocratic country that is why not committed to any one sect, but it does not mean that she is committed to none. It does mean just committed to all with equal warmth.
Its surprising that India is both democratic and socialist. Democracy places individual in the centre of all activities, whereas socialism takes care of society even at the cost of the well being of the individual. A nation can be either socialist or democratic. In India since the dawn of the civilisation the existence of every entity and its growth and development has been treated in terms of mutual dependence not in mutual struggle. In the view of Indian socio-political-philosophers the interest of the individual is not in the way of welfare of the society. Rather, these are interrelated and intra-dependent. The interest of the individuals collectively become the interest of the society. In this way both the democracy and socialism can walk hand-in-hand.
Like democracy republic form of government is not new to the political thinkers of India. Both Mahavir and Buddha were from republics. The term Gana was used in the Rigveda. The only difference between the republic of the today and that of yore is that the head of the republican states in ancient India were elected by limited franchise. The head of modern Indian republic is indirectly elected for a limited period and his electoral college consist of the elected members who are directly elected by the universal adult suffrage.
Hitherto, we have discussed the nature now we turn towards the aims and goals of the Constitution. All round justice is the foremost goal targeted to be achieved. Social justice is preferred to the economic justice and economic justice preferred to the political justice. Constitution makers had deliberately put the justices in the given sequence i.e. social, economic and political. Political justice means every Indian has one vote and every vote carries equal value. But, the political equality makes no sense in the realm of economic disparity. Thus, the economic growth with equality is underlined. But why the social equality prior to the economic equality? Is anything more important in ones life than a square of meal a day? Or, is any standard other than economic more important for the people of the modern world? In the Indian context the answer is yes for all aforesaid interrogations. In India, caste ridden India, economic status of the people has not always been responsible to decide the social standards of the people. Most of the artisans and craftsmen who have been comparatively, economically, better of came from lower caste, most of them treated as untouchables. Hence, in India the all round justice can never be attained unless the discrimination on the basis of caste is abolished.
India is a land of many religions. Hinduism is major all the rest are minor. Different religions have got different modes of worship and different means to express their conscience.
The Constitution aspires to secure the equality of status and opportunity to every citizen. What is the equality of the status? Does it imply that every citizen will hold same status? Or, probably it means that person will enjoy the status of the rank or the post irrespective of his caste or creed. Constitution also tries to provide same amount of opportunities to the citizen of India. Equal opportunity does not mean that everyone will have the same and identical opportunities. We have to be very clear in our mind that Constitution guarantees equal status or opportunity not identical status or opportunity. Thus, it does not discard the application of reasonable and rational discrimination while securing status and opportunity to its citizens. It means different people may be given different nature and number of opportunities as per their social, educational and economic circumstances.
What is fraternity? Sense of belongingness. Each treats other as his brother. The moot point is to respect the self and ego of every individual as his own self and respect. Constitution guarantees that the dignity of every citizen is taken care of and respected. But simultaneously the indivisibility of nation is also maintained. The personal ego should not take over the unity and integrity of the nation. Here the addition of Integrity into the preamble is a smart business, unlike the addition of socialist and secular. There is a subtle and qualitative difference between unity and integrity. Unity denotes physical oneness. Its an apparent and concrete display of physical and external discipline. Integrity is something abstract and internal. It denotes the cultural and spiritual underpinning of the personality of a man or of a nation. One can say in difference living together is unity, loving together is integrity.
The preamble also informs when the Constitution was finally drafted and enacted. Also tells it was not only enacted but adopted and given to the people themselves. ‘Adopt, enact and give to ourselves’ words convey more meaning in this context than they otherwise do. When we adopted our Constitution became the organic part of our body, its no longer a law book dealing with heartless intricacies of our laws. It feels as a very tender heart is throbbing within the text and the blood which is making it to throb is same which is running in our veins. Give to ourselves reflects the respect of giving. It means that the emotional overtoning does not take away the scope of applicability of the brain. The blending of adoption and giving is really happy blending of brain and heart. Enactment gives just the legal sanction to the Constitution.
I want to share a tickling query with the readers. The preamble starts We the people who constitutes India into such and such nature but the people are securing the rights to the citizen of India, not to the people themselves. Is this difference of people and citizen is deliberate? Constitution was drafted by the members of constituents assembly who had been elected by the electoral college which itself was elected by limited suffrage from the citizens of India. So virtually, though indirectly, these are the citizens of India who are drafting the Constitution not the people of the land. So apparently, wording could have been like ‘We the citizen of India………securing all its people’. But what is the actual sequence of wording is nothing but the marvelous reflection of Indian idealism. The idealism is that when the law is enacted its enacted with taking care of the emotions and sentiments of all the people of the land not only the citizens but the protection of the Constitution is available to only those who are good people ————– The citizens.
1. Were added to the Preamble vide Forty-second constitution Amendment Act of 1976.
Questions related to the PREAMBLE of the Constitution asked in the IAS examinations in the different years are given below for the answers of the same please click on the link given below the questions:
1. Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the ‘Preamble’. Are they defendable in the
present circumstances? (IAS MAINS 2016)
2. What was the amendment in 1975, in the preamble of the Constitution? Discuss its significance. (IAS MAINS 1983)
3. What is the significance of a preamble to a constitution? Bring out the philosophy of the Indian polity as
enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution. (IAS MAINS 2004)
4. ‘Preamble is the key to the mind of the constitution makers’. Discuss (IAS Prelims 2017 )
State is an instrument in the hands of a nation. One is a whole other is a part of it. State belongs to a nation, or a nation owns a state. It can be better understood by citing an example. Under the British rule, Indian state belonged to British rule, we lived in the British state and India was our nation. Any state takes care of its nation, British rule also served for England and not for India. That is why we demanded swaraj i.e. self-rule (our state). State is also defined in article 12 of the Indian Constitution; Union government, Union Parliament, State Legislatures and State governments, Local bodies and other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of Indian government. When Preamble reads, "To Constitute India into Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic ", here the term India is used as a State and not as a nation.
Sometimes, nation and country (desh) are used as synonyms but they are not the same and the difference is very subtle and abstract. Likewise, there is a subtle difference between a patriot (deshbhakt) and a nationalist (rashtravadi). There was a question in IAS mains related to Rabindra Nath Tagore that he was a patriot and not a nationalist. Generally, the term country is used for rural areas and sometimes underline cultural values and folk traditions. Generally, country denotes natural surrounding. Nation is generally used in a western sense where it means a particular geographical area with political commitment and identity. Country is a natural surrounding where we are born and cannot live without.
Thus, the term patriotism encompasses humanistic values and universal approach. Thus, patriot is one who is ready to live with or die for his natural surroundings, including people irrespective of the nation the natural surrounding situated in. This tendency of a patriot makes patriotism a universal value. To sum up, State is a man created system within or outside nation, country is a natural environment with human population and nation is a feeling of belongingness with that state and country.
Now to the next part of the question i.e. the difference between Western and Indian Nationalism. Western nationalism is a geopolitical expression while the Indian nationalism is a geo-cultural expression. Western nations were created as a consequence of the formation of states. Western nationalism does not discriminate between nation and state. A sovereign state declares itself a nation. Thus, the genesis of Western nationalism is sovereign politics.
Indian nationalism is more a cultural expression than a political one. In Vedic literature, Rashtra(nation) is used for people, not for land. Here, nation is an eternal and living entity. Formation of nation is a cosmic and natural phenomenon than political business.
As a man is not merely an assembly of organs likewise nation is not an assembly of people and land. The soul comes first, generates organs and creates human entity, not vice versa. Likewise, nation comes first and everything rest that belongs to nation created by the cosmic energy of nation called Chiti (soul of nation).
To sum up, western nationalism is an artificial and political business and Indian nationalism is cultural and natural phenomenon.
Lecture link for the above answer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuFtJJpD9gY&t=293s
There had been several election reforms since 1952 to make election transparent. A milestone was set by CEC(Chief of Election Commission) TN Sheshan. Before him, CEC was not known to common man. Still, a lot to be done to make election establish a healthy democratic system. A few of them can be following:
1. The Model Code of Conduct(MCC) which starts with the notification of election should be applied round the year 24×7. If Model Code of Conduct is not applied round the year and making it effective only with a notification of election the very purpose of MCC is defeated. If any candidate has been attending the cast and religious gathering more than 4 years after the previous election it becomes ridiculous to ask that person to behave caste-neutral or religion-neutral after notification.
2. Post-poll alliances should be made illegal. Only pre-post alliances should be allowed. Like 'defection' post-poll alliances also cheat on the conscience of voters because pre-poll alliances are done on the basis of ideology or in the broader interest of the national politics while post-poll alliances are done as a tool of political expediency and wasted interests of the individuals. Those who have fought elections against one-another and hurled tons of abuses on each other come together after elections to form the government. Voters feel cheated like anything. One thing more, prohibition of post-poll alliances will lead to two or three party system that will strengthen ideology based multi-party democratic setup.
3. NOTA should be given real and stronger teeth to make itself effective. Hitherto NOTA is just a ritualistic adjustment in the list of electoral reforms. It is still as ineffective as when it was not ìn existence. If NOTA receives more votes than any candidate then elections of that constituency should be declared null and void. That will force the political parties to field the candidates who are honest, above board and whose integrity is beyond doubt in the opinion of the voters of the constituency and are not rejected by them.
4. As early as possible every voter should receive the slip to get ensured that his vote has gone to the candidate he has voted for.
Last but not the least the election commission should be given more legal and judicial authority to enforce its rules and regulations and punish the culprits.